As we all know by now, there are a lot of programming languages, and that’s not enough; quite a few are added each year. In the last article about this topic, we saw a lot of data and gave you our opinion on which language to learn this year. Now we are going to focus on numbers only.

Learning a new programming language is an intensive investment in time and brainpower. So making the right choice is important. If you are a seasoned developer or if you already know several programming languages, then you can learn a niche, modern one. Like Rust, Go, TypeScript or Kotlin.


In today’s world, Python is omnipresent and used in almost all areas of software development, and it looks like it’s not going anywhere anytime soon. The programming language ranking site PYPL has ranked Python as the number one programming language with a considerable popularity gain in 2019:

Guido van Rossum developed Python in the 1990s as his side project. Little did he know it would grow to be one of the most popular and widely used programming languages. In 2008, Python went through a massive overhaul and improvement with the cost of introducing significant breaking changes by introducing Python 3.

3 Key Features:
  • The USP of Python is its language design. It is highly productive, elegant, simple, yet powerful. Python has set the gold standard in terms of developer experience and heavily influenced modern languages like Go, Julia.
  • Python has first-class integration with C/C++ and can seamlessly offload the CPU heavy tasks to C/C++. Also, Python gives a powerful toolset for Mathematics, Statistics, and Computational Science with various libraries like NumPyPandasSciPyScikit-Learn. As a result, Python dominates the Machine Learning/Deep Learning/Data Science landscape and other Scientific domain.
  • Python has a very active community and support. You can always find enough Python libraries and frameworks, no matter whether you are working on Enterprise Applications, Data Science, or Artificial Intelligence.

Python has also surpassed Java and became the 2nd most popular language according to GitHub repositories contributions:

Also, StackOverflow developer survey has ranked Python as the 2nd most popular programming language (4th most popular Technology):

Job Market:

According to Indeed, Python is the most demanding programming language in the USA job market with the highest 74 K job posting in January 2020. Also, Python ranked third with a $120 K yearly salary.

Main Uses:
  • Data Science
  • Data Analytics
  • Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning
  • Enterprise Application
  • Web Development

2. JavaScript

Brendan Eich first wrote Javascript in just a mere ten days, and, at first, it was ridiculed. Over the years, JavaScript has evolved into a multi-paradigm, high-level, dynamic programming language. The first significant breakthrough of JavaScript came in 2009 when Ryan Dahl has released cross-platform JavaScript runtime Node.js and enabled JavaScript to run on Server Side. The other enormous breakthrough of JavaScript came around 2010 when Google has released a JavaScript-based Web development framework AngularJS.

3 Key Features:
  • JavaScript is the undisputed king in Browser programming. Today, Web development is dominated mainly by JavaScript-based SPA frameworks like React, Vue.js, Angular.
  • Thanks to Node.js, JavaScript offers event-driven programming, which is especially suitable for I/O heavy tasks. Today, JavaScript and Node.js run on almost all Platforms, including Servers and Mobile devices.
  • JavaScript has gone through massive modernization and overhaul in the last several years, especially in 2015, 2016, and later. The major JavaScript releases like ES5, ES6 has added many modern features, and JavaScript of today is entirely different from JavaScript of the last decade.

Octoverse has put JavaScript as the number one programming language for five consecutive years by GitHub repositories contributions:

StackOverflow developer survey 2019 has ranked JavaScript as the most popular programming language and Technology:

Job Market:

In the USA Job market, Indeed has ranked JavaScript as the third most demanding programming language with 57 K Job posting in January 2020. With $114 K average yearly salary, JavaScript ranks 4th in terms of salary:

Main Uses:
  • Web Development
  • Backend Development
  • Mobile App Development
  • Serverless Computing
  • Browser Game Development

3. Java

Java is one of the most disruptive programming languages to date. James Gosling and his team in Sun lowered the barrier to develop business applications by offering a much simpler, object-oriented, interpreted programming language that also supports Multi-threading programming.

Java has achieved Platform independence by developing Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which abstracted the low-level Operating System from developers and gave the first “Write Once, Run anywhere” programming language. Also, JVM offered generation garbage collection, which manages the Object life cycle.

3 Key Features:
  • Java offers a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity.
  • This language is strictly backward compatible, which is a crucial requirement for business applications. Java has never introduced a major breaking change like Python or Scala. As a result, it is still the number one choice for enterprises.
  • Java’s runtime JVM is a masterpiece of Software Engineering and one of the best virtual machines in the industry. With 25 years of innovation and engineering craftsmanship, JVM offers high performance and features to Java. Also, JVM provides some advanced Garbage Collection to Java.

According to the GitHub repository contribution, Java was in the number one spot during the 2014–2018 and only slipped to number 3rd position in last year:

StackOverflow developer survey also ranked Java high and only superseded by JavaScript and Python programming languages:

Job Market:

According to Indeed, Java is the second most demanding programming language in the USA, with 69 K Job posting in January 2020. Also, Java developers earn the 6th highest annual salary ($104 K):

Main Uses:
  • Enterprise Application Development
  • Android App Development
  • Big Data
  • Web Development
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